• To capture the multiple social and economic factors associated with community
well-being, researchers have used indices based on composite indicators to measure
well-being at national and regional levels.
• The Community Well-Being (CWB) Index was developed to measure well-being in
Canadian Aboriginal communities, which are populated by First Nations, Metis, and
• The CWB Index combines Canadian Census data about income, education, housing,
and labour force activity, and uses this information to calculate a community
well-being score from a low of 0 to a high of 100.
• Large disparities exist between non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal communities; many
First Nations, Metis, and Inuit have substantially lower standards of living than other
• Overall scores for well-being in Canada increased between 1981and 2006, but a large
gap still exists between the non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal communities, with 96 First
Nations communities scoring among the lowest 100 Canadian communities.